I3 UPDATE / ENTOVATION International News
No. 37: February 2000
Millennium Innovation: Born out of Practice - Debra M. Amidon
The ENTOVATION 100: Worldwide Knowledge Leadership - Debra M. Amidon
Payments Online: A Virtual Necessity - David J. Skyrme
PDVSA Foro Internacional Gerencia del Conocimiento - Debra M. Amidon
Snippets - Youth: Building Knowledge Societies; Journal of Intellectual Capital; Barbara Hughes.
Welcome to this edition of I3 UPDATE / ENTOVATION International News, a free electronic briefing giving insights into the evolving knowledge economy and its implications for executives, policy makers and professionals. The key features this month are some reflections on the state of knowledge innovation at the turn of the millennium and an analysis of some views of 100 knowledge leaders from around the world. We also cover the 6th P of the 7Ps of Internet Marketing - Payments.
Back issues of I3 UPDATE can be found at http://www.skyrme.com/updates/. We are several months behind with the archives but expect to have them with much more content on our new web-site by the end of the month. As usual we welcome your comments and feedback.
I3 UPDATE is also available by email. See the administrative information page for how to join or leave the mail list.
David J. Skyrme
Debra M. Amidon
As I watched the CNN broadcast the dawn of the Millennium ripple across the word, I could not help but be encouraged. Whether you believe the year began on January 1 or is yet to come; there is one thing upon we might agree. People underestimate the power of the positive flow of energy we all experience. Y2K aside, people individuals and organizations alike appear to have renewed commitment to change, or as we prefer to call it innovation (i.e., the capacity to preserve the best of the old and realign the rest to take advantage of future opportunity).
Reflect for a moment on insights provided by the Special Millennium Edition of The Economist (December 1999): Reporting on a Thousand Years. The discussion on 'wealth' was a comment on the last years of innovation. "Mathematics and mechanics had come together. By the end of the 17th century, understanding and application had converged. Knowledge had expanded, you might say, up to and beyond the point of critical mass. The intellectual foundations for the technological revolution were in place."
I wonder now, in the next thousand years, how the evolution of a knowledge economy will be written. The focus is no longer the technology, nor is it information. In fact, as they write, "Technology is driven by knowledge, and especially scientific knowledge. Knowledge is cumulative; once it exists, it does not cease to exist." Is this not the Multiplier effect of which Charles Savage, author of '5th Generation Management', speaks? He suggests, and I agree, we are only at the beginning of a fifty-year, perhaps more, transition.
The Economist suggests that "when a critical mass of knowledge exists, the pace of future accumulation can increase sharply, as previously unsuspected connections between branches of knowledge are exploited, each breakthrough creating new opportunities." This is similar to the Kaleidoscopic Dynamic referenced in Innovation Strategy for the Knowledge Economy: The Ken Awakening. It is not the speed of change of a variable. Nor is it the speed of change of multiple variables. It is the compounding effect of the speed of change of multiple variable that creates a management environment with which we are totally unfamiliar. And, there is no going back.
In 1987, few understood the value of a focus on intellectual capital. Similarly so goes the article, "…few of the inventors responsible for the astonishing wave of innovation between 1750 and 1860 were scientists; most were artisans or engineers with little or no scientific training. They were men of common sense, curiosity, energy and a vast ingenuity, standing on the shoulders not of scholars but of similar practical types."
If we were to look at the real leadership of the knowledge economy (e.g., Edvinsson, Saint-Onge, Greenes, Petrash, and Sveiby), they are practitioners. The roots of the movement are based in my own technology transfer function at Digital Equipment Corporation then a managerial enigma in the technology field. According to our research - the leaders are visionary, holistic, systematic, and encourage an environment of teamwork, learning and innovation. Truth be known, many of these practitioners sound more like theorists in their presentations than do the faculty researchers.
"More was achieved in technological innovation during the five or six 'dark' centuries after the collapse of the Roman Empire than in its heyday. Yet the fact remains that the decisive break between the economic stagnation which kept mankind in poverty for thousands of years and the modern era of rapid growth occurred fully a century before science was harnessed to technology," reports The Economist. What that may bode for our future is an unprecedented explosion of economic rewards of innovation based upon the flow of knowledge, not the flow of technology (i.e., materials into products and services). We have yet to witness the benefits of such a self-sustaining naturally accelerating circle of innovation based upon collaborative advantage not competition any more.
Debra M. Amidon
Welcome to the Knowledge Millennium!
It has been only one short year when we first invited a diagonal slice of the ENTOVATION network to participate in the Global Knowledge Leadership Map. They came from a variety of disciplines, a wide range of functional responsibilities and representing 50 nations. There are some recognized thought leaders (e.g., Edvinsson, Nonaka, Pasher, Sveiby, Saint-Onge, et al) as well as newcomers, some of whom just graduated from Ph.D. programs. Some are CEOs or senior managers; others are government officials or academic researchers. There are experts in performance measurement, competitive analysis, and alliance strategy as well as computer/ communications technology. They are all playing a role in shaping our new economy.
A detailed description of the respondents and summary of their observations has been published in the ‘Global Momentum of Knowledge Strategy’ - now available in several languages. As a reminder, the questions asked were:
- What are your roots in the knowledge field?
- Who has influenced you and why?
- What have you been able to accomplish?
- What still needs to be done?
- What is your vision of a knowledge economy?
What these individuals seem to share in common is a sense of values, a compelling vision and standards of operational excellence to emulate. This is the reason they have been featured. They are not ALL the experts; the experts have their own forums. They are not ALL the students; they have their internal academic networks. They DO represent a cross-section of expertise that promises to provide robust fodder as to the implications of the Knowledge Economy. In short, I believe they are a virtual community of collaborators working for the common good a new economic world order based upon knowledge. This will result in profitable growth for the enterprise, the vitality of their respective national economies and the advancement of society both industrialized and developing nations alike.
Overall, progressive knowledge leaders see a shift from the focus on limited resources financial, human, and technological that pervaded the industrial age. With a grant from Siemens AG, we asked Jan Wyllie, Trend Monitor Internationa to provide an in depth analysis (below) of the fundamental trends. By determining key patterns, we have discovered the scope of collective findings among this diverse group of knowledge professionals. What follows are the five Meta Views that arise from his process of concept mapping. Their comments have also been categorized according to the ten dimensions of innovation strategy and will soon serve as the foundation of an electronic dialogue over the next ten months. The collective insights will be available in a new forthcoming intelligence service.
In the meantime, enjoy the identification of the trends below as a prospectus on the future we are innovating! At first blush, these identified trends make seem like they come from Pollyanna. On the other hand, if these are legitimate, relevant observations of the shifts in our society, perhaps they do point a direction that can be embraced by veteran and new knowledge managers alike.
A multi-faceted conception of a world knowledge commonwealth replacing the world of nations is proposed, as a means of going beyond the one-dimensional, zero-sum game of economics and interest driven money. The knowledge commonwealth, which includes what we now classify as social and moral issues, could not be controlled, or even led, although it might be balanced. In this New Eden, the Tree of Knowledge and the Tree of Life grow together "into one tree", as thinking about knowledge becomes less abstract and more conscious, more concerned with diversity and wisdom, than the struggle between right and wrong.
If the validity of both nations and companies is being questioned, the key drivers and supports for the Western consumer economy are likely to be rethought out of existence. A new much more holistic concept of wealth is implied in which the importance of money as the measure of all things necessarily becomes diminished. One of the original reasons for forming Nation-States was as a curb human greed and aggression. It would be ironic, but hardly surprising that this artifice has had the opposite effect.
Without the national state and corporate players as the main economic actors, who would the players be in a knowledge commonwealth?
Meta View no. 2: Control to Humility
The illusion that we can control the world using knowledge instruments, such as policy and the scientific method is being questioned. This new knowledge of ignorance concerning the ecology of which humans are merely a part, as well as the Uncertainty Principle at its center is more reminiscent of the nature of ancient knowledge where humans were the humble subjects of nature rather than trying to be its masters.
This kind of ancient knowledge is illustrated by a recent quote from Hopi Indian Elders who have preserved this kind of ancient knowledge and applied it to our time. "There is a river flowing now very fast. It is so great and swift, that there are those who will be afraid. They will try to hold on to the shore. They will feel they are being torn apart and will suffer greatly. Know the river has its destination. The elders say we must let go of the shore, push off into the middle of the river, keep our eyes open, and our heads above the water. And I say, see who is in there with you and celebrate. At this time in history, we are to take nothing personally. Least of all, ourselves. For the moment that we do, our spiritual growth and journey comes to a halt. The time of the lone wolf is over. Gather yourselves! Banish the word struggle from your attitude and your vocabulary. All that we do now must be done in a sacred manner and in celebration. We are the ones we have been waiting for."
Where does wisdom come from? Does it come from possessing good knowledge? Or is it the source of good knowledge?
Meta View No. 3: Knowing to Imagining
It is suggested that imagination might be more valuable than knowledge.
When all is certain and understood, there is little need for imagination. When all is doubt and uncertainty, the imagination becomes a key survival tool. Without imagination it is impossible to consider and think about the unknown. Without imagination, there can be no living stories, only dead information. Innovation is the product of imagination and so is adaptation.
If imagination is at the root of all knowledge why do different forms of knowledge, such as arts and sciences, seem to pull in such different directions?
Meta View No. 4: Limited to Unlimited
The knowledge economy is seen as "fueled by creative energy" and a "well spring of limitless resources" because knowledge can grow exponentially as it is created and shared. With knowledge, people can learn to do what they think. Intangible knowledge assets are reported becoming more valuable than tangible assets.
The problem with concepts, such as exponential growth in a knowledge economy is that they try to put a quantitative value on qualitative change. Indeed part of the qualitative change may be stop trying to put a quantitative value on intangible assets, such as knowledge.
Is it meaningful to talk about an economy without modes of measurement?
MetaView No. 5: Goals to Aspirations
According to Debra Amidon, the goal is no less than the "re-definition" of the whole field of management in response to "kaleidoscopic change" which demands "new forms of measurement, learning strategies, leveraging of technology and new modes of interaction, both inside and external to the organization". Other Entovation Fellows feel that organizations should be mission oriented, self-directed -- and happy -- in order to be productive and to "replicate opportunities". Managing intellectual capital is seen as a way of giving more value to customers, than managing products and services. The goal of knowledge, which is conceived as multicultural and multidisciplinary, is to transform people and organizations "from within". More emphasis needs to be given to practice and information, compared with theory and technology. Both technical knowledge and information both for and about customers are necessary for "world development" and the "economically cultivated" consumer.
Until quite recently, an organization's main challenges were to chart a course using strategic planning, for example, and then to stay on course despite being buffeted by the waves of change. The core assumption was that the co-ordinates of direction -- North / South, Profitable / Unprofitable, Right / Wrong, Progress / Regress -- remained constant like Latitude and Longitude on the map. Organisations could be blown off course, they could even change course, but at least they would know where they are. Now the challenge is to thrive in a chaotic, complex and unpredictable -- kaleidoscopic -- flow of opportunities and dangers in which an organization's habitual coordinates no longer seem to apply.
If the goal is to look for new coordinates -- new values -- to guide our perceptions and decisions, in which direction should we look? How might we navigate?
David J. Skyrme
Last month, in this series of 7Ps of Internet Marekting, we covered Progression - giving users something for nothing but eventually coaxing them to part with their money in return for even better content. In theory online payments should be the easiest of the 7Ps from an Internet traders perspective. All you do is offer and price your goods, take an order, send the goods and receive payment (or vice versa for the last two). A trading transaction that most of us do day in day out with a wide range of goods. Simple? In theory yes. In practice no!
The Internet, however, adds several layers of complications and decisions for the trader. Often there is no prior relationship between buyer and seller and so the brand loyalty or trust has not been developed (hence the importance of progression). There are more practical considerations:
- What is the point of sale for legal and tax purposes?
- What currency should I transact in. How much will I lose on a foreign exchange transaction (e.g. one of my banks charges $25 to pay in a foreign cheque and it takes 4-5 weeks to reach my account - hardly a useful service in this age of online markets and speed).
- If I send goods first, how do I know I will get paid, especially if it is a low value product and my buyer is in a foreign country?
- How easy is it to set up my site for instant online credit card payments?
- How secure are the transactions?
In fact, analysts and commentators on ecommerce list a number of key factors that are needed for all parties in the supply chain to have confidence:
- Authentication - are the parties who they say they are (It's so easy to change the From: entry in an email and purport to be somebody else)?
- Privacy - will the transaction data be confidential?
- Non-repudiation - how legal is an online transaction, so that once an order has been placed it cannot be retracted?
- Guaranteed delivery - we've all read how some high profile traders like eToys, came unstuck with long delays over the holiday period - breaking the normal rules for taking credit card payments - that the goods should be dispatched coincidentally or within a short time period of debiting the buyer's account.
- Secure Payments - the ability to make payments knowing that the money has (or will) be reliably transferred without interception.
Technologists have come up with answers to many of these - built-in security functions in browsers (e.g. SSL -Secure Sockets Layer), digital certificates (e.g. Verisign http://www.verisign.com), PGP (Pretty Good Privacy - http://www.pgpI.org - International or http://www.pgp.com - not org unless you want the Pecan Grove Plantation community website!). However, as in many other aspects of online working, it is not the technology that will determine outcomes but the behaviour of every one in the supply chain - buyers, sellers, banks.
Tensions: The Traditionalists vs. New Kids on The Block
If buyers and sellers had listened to the traditionalists, ecommerce would not have developed as much as it has today. Traditional banks were telling customers about how insecure the Internet was and would not necessarily give their cardholders the normal protection they received against fraudulent use of their credit card number. Even today they charge high merchant fees for CNP (Cardholder Not Present) transactions. The early entrees by traditional retailers were abysmal (many still are!). Nevertheless, a combination of easier to use software, innovative web start-ups (e.g. amazon.com) and early adopters has put Internet commerce firmly on the map. Now the traditionalists are scurrying to catch up, and traditional banks, to be fair, faced with new online competitors are now active in the online payments loop (though still not as competitive as some Payment Service Providers - see below- who offer bureau merchant accounts).
A few years ago, there were several promising developments on the payments front, but many have not matured as quickly as anticipated.
SET: Secure Electronic Trading. A more secure way of sending transaction information between the buyer (client browser), seller and payment handler. However, a combination of technical setbacks (complexity and slowness) and general lack of enthusiasm by the trading community has held it back.
Digital cash. The ability to send cash via software over the net from a digital wallet in your computer. It did not take off as fast as anticipated, since everyone has to buy into the same currency standard. An early pioneer, David Chaum's Digicash, went bankrupt, though its technologies have carried on in eCash Technologies, while Cybercash is phasing out its first cybercoin system and has move to InstaBuy akin to the 1-Click feature on Amazon. Its "one Click anywhere" means that you don't have to fill out your credit card and shipping details for your shopping (at least at those sites that support instabuy!).
Micropayments. One of the attractions of digital cash is that it is cost effective for small amounts, without incurring the minimum charges often levied for credit card transaction. Iqport, whose trading experiment ceased last month (see Snippets in I3 UPDATE No. 36) allowed transactions of $1 to be split into 100 shares, allocated in any way for specific items, between content providers, accreditors, communities and the service providers. Millicent (MilliCent), an early micropayments software developed by Digital, allows individual transactions as low as 1/10th of a cent, and unlike digital cash which is authenticated by the issuing bank, each trader authenticates the scrips (i.e. pieces of millicash). What Millicent faces is the practical problem of "potentially unmanageable numbers of issuers of scrips and the difficulty in matching a spent scrip with its issuers could again raise costs". However, it is operational in Japan, and is promised for Europe and North Amercia "very shortly".
Another interesting innovation is beenz: "It's like money but better!" Here, you earn beenz buy visiting sites sporting the beenz logo (typing in your email address) and spend it at sites that have the 'sell beenz' logo. Some pages earn you the equivalent of a few cents - others (e.g. test drive a Honda) several dollars. The redeemable value (from the merchants view point) is 50 per cent.
While these developments will undoubtedly progress, what is clear that it is not an overnight job to put in place new universally accepted global virtual currency systems, when the traditional systems have taken the last few centuries to develop.
Back to Basics
Realistically, unless you have high volumes of low value items, or time, to experiment with these new digital payments your options are:
- find a mall or specialist site that will act as an agent or handle your credit card transactions for a small fee (there are some)
- use conventional off-line selling e.g. the buyer prints out an order form and sends a cheque or deals with you by mail order or phone
- use an online shopping basket and payment service provider.
It is the latter that is now the most realistic and common. There are some excellent shopping basket systems e.g. Actinic catalogue which take the hassle out of writing your own shopping pages on the web, and give you the flexibility to deal with multiple currencies, different post and packing rates etc. Supporting this there is a raft of Payment Service Providers (e.g. WorldPay) - note that these are mostly start-up companies and not traditional banks! These providers validate credit cards and process credit cards on line so that the buyer does not even send you the details but has a secure encrypted transaction direct with the service provider. So for less than a $1000 you can have an online shop - perhaps not as well stocked as Amazon, but professional none the less.
The Bottom Line
However you extract payment from your customer, it is only one part of the overall transaction. Ideally you will make it part of an ongoing symbiotic relationship. Perhaps you will set up credit accounts and special discounts and offers for valued customers. The golden rules of online payment are:
- Make it easy for your customer to do business with you (simple forms, choices of payment mechanisms)
- Minimize risk and uncertainty e.g. confirm details, offer money-back guarantees
- Make your terms of trading clear, since there are different expectations by different customers
- Remember "Watch my lips - no more taxes"? You can't avoid what governments want to do (which is increasingly to tap into the lucrative potential tax revenues from Internet trading) but you can promise "Watch my pages - no hidden charges" (e.g. no unannounced extras for packing and shipment)
- Responsive follow through e.g. personalized 'thank you' email, confirming email, answering quires, formal invoice (if requested)
- Honour your commitments e.g. your delivery and price promises (even better if you can deliver online as soon as their payment has been validated)
- Respect their privacy - if you are going to use 'cookies' to track their use of your web-site, or sell their details on to marketing agencies - say so (and not in the small print).
In short, there's another P not on our list, but which should underpin trading on the net - Professionalism - something that is sadly lacking in some quarters.
Update - Other articles in this series The 7Ps of Internet Marketing cover Portals, Packaging, Positioning and Page Impressions and Progression.
Debra M. Amidon
We read about the opportunity for developing nations to leapfrog economically with a focus on knowledge strategy. The World Bank - in its 1998/99 World Development Report - affirms that "Peer countries differ from rich ones not only because they have less capital but because they have less knowledge." It continues, "And it is the lack of knowledge that causes markets to collapse, or never come into being…In short, knowledge gives people greater control over their destinies" True or not, it provides a foundation for an innovative path forward. Sometimes, this is all that is needed.
We also witness the challenge of worldwide leadership assumed by progressive managers in these developing nations (see I3 UPDATE / ENTOVATION International News No 23) Alejandro Fernandez, Vice President of Human Resources, PDVSA (Caracas, Venezuela) serves as host for Global HR 1998 1000 plus executives convened by the World Federation of Personnel Management Associations. But participation in the global forum is not enough to take the knowledge practices inside the company.
Enter Olimpia Salas - (Email: firstname.lastname@example.org) - served as the architect of an in-house October knowledge congress commanding 450 senior executives and two dozen leading experts in the field from Latin America and abroad. Sessions ranged from keynotes to intensive workshops on topics, such as KM and the Convergence of the Media (Jonathan Levy), Implementing KM in a Global Organization (Kent Greenes), Crafting a Knowledge Innovation Strategy (Debra M. Amidon) and Tips, Tricks and Traps in Community Building (Richard McDermott).
Carla O'Dell led the keynote addresses in describing what the American Productivity and Quality Center (APQC) has learned about frameworks, KM approaches, examples in the Oil & Gas Industry and lessons learned. Using the Atlas as a metaphor, Debra M. Amidon described the new Knowledge Value Proposition and the migration from Business Planning to Knowledge Innovation Strategy - http://www.entovation.com/whatsnew/atlas1.htm. Elana Granell de Aldez, author of the 1998 book 'Managing Culture for Success' was the winner of the Annual Prize given by CONICIT for the best scientific study in Social and Humanistic Studies. Her messages include the elements required by a knowledge management culture. Orlando Albornoz, winner of the 1997 Interamerican Educational Prize “Andres Bello” applied the knowledge management concepts to institutions of higher education, including messages about hyperlearning and hypolearning in Higher Education and the Caribbean.
Cesar Pena Vigas, rector of the Universidad Tecnologica del Centro, outlined a new initiative and the success factors for entrepreneurs:
- Innovation is a rotational axis for overall performance.
- Adequate response to the learning requires response in an organized fashion.
- Compensation for self-development is a strategy for growth.
- Value of immediately available new knowledge share fast to compete.
- Teamwork is an energizing instrument for individual competencies.
- Intellectual assets are conceived as a public mechanism
- A 'stock market' for talent promotion and capitalization.
In 1997 this computerized performance system called Knownet, was based upon the model originally developed at PDVSA and was sold as a product in 1998 to the Spanish company, Meta4.
Alex Garcia, the manager of Competence Development for PDVSA’s Production Unit is currently in charge of the KM implementation for an organization with 20,000 employees and widespread geographic distribution. He described the needs for early wins and the lessons derived from the application of KM. He spoke of the need for support from top management, empowered motivation, proper allocation of resources, promotion of communities of practice (of which there were now 33), each associated with a value proposition. These communities are groupings of professionals with a common objective to preserve expand and leverage widespread knowledge. The focus is on 'better' not 'best' practices. The goal of the Knowledge Guiding Team is to ensure that there are no knowledge islands. This enables faster adoption of the concepts and optimization of practices at the corporate level. He reported significant achievements already with this 'knowledge alignment' approach.
Numerous other experts from throughout Latin America offered their expertise in lectures, panels, exhibits and intensive workshops: Orlando Albornoz (Universidad de Central de Venezuela), Eleadoro Venticilla (DKV Asociados), Laskmit Yamaui (Ernst and Young), Jesus Arape (Vision Grupo), Eilut (Lotus), Jose Albert (Meta4), Jose A. Natera (Xerox), Jorge Salles (Microsoft), Marcelo Hoffmann (SRI), Lair Ribeiro (Grupo Sintonia) and Luigi Valdes, author of 'Knowledge is Future'. Silvard Kool and Debra M. Amidon continued their knowledge concert tour in a performance "Viaje al Mundo del Coniciemento."
Closing the three-day conference was Oswaldo Contreras Maza, PDVSA Vice President of Shared Resources, who suggested that 'change' and 'knowledge' were just two sides of the same coin. "We learn to change and change to learn." Commenting on what he described as a timely and impeccable performance, he suggested that PDVSA be only at the start of the knowledge campaign. "These knowledge communities technicians and professionals alike have developed complementary and core tactics and strategies with common commitment to triumph. We must visualize what lies beyond the horizon and take advantage of the opportunities. We educate for our own defense. We manage knowledge to stay and prevail."
Earlier in this issue, we discussed the analysis performed by Jan Wyllie, Trend Monitor International, of what we have described as the Knowledge Millennium Generation - an initiative that was sponsored by Joachim Doering, Siemens AG. We are now soliciting reactions from leading knowledge faculty around the world for their soon to be published comments.
Now, we have discovered that there is a global e-conference entitled "Youth: Building Knowledge Societies" that explores how young people use Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in the production, dissemination and use of knowledge in pursuit of sustainable development. The results of the e-conference will be presented to the Global Knowledge Partnership during the Second Global Knowledge Conference (GKII) from 7-10 March 2000 in Malaysia.
To join or view the discussion, send an e-mail to: email@example.com. Do not enter a subject. In the body of the message, type the text: SUBSCRIBE. Do not put anything after SUBSCRIBE You will receive a Welcome Letter to the List. For further information about the YBKS List or the e-conference contact:
Terri Willard, International Institute for Sustainable Development, firstname.lastname@example.org.
MCB University Press, the publisher of the Journal of Knowledge Management, will launch the Journal of Intellectual Capital (JIC) in May 2000. The Journal will report on the development and implementation of innovative strategies and approaches to facilitate organizational transformation leading to superior performance. It will examine how organizations are developing strategies to maximize and increase the value of their intellectual capital - human, customer and enterprise capital - and the tools, techniques, processes and metrics which are used for identifying, managing and reporting intellectual capital. Contributions to the Journal of Intellectual Capital are encouraged. For more information, visit the publisher at Website: www.mcb.co.uk/jic.htm,
or E-mail: email@example.com.
I had to respond to your comments about 'Longitude', which I also watched as I was visiting London during Christmas and New Year. What a wonderful analogy; I confess I was too full of Christmas pudding still to make the connection with New Knowledge. Thank you for pointing it out. On its own, it was a most compelling story.
28 Feb - 3 March, 2000. 2nd Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning Conference. London. A bevy of well known speakers including Drucker and Nonaka. Linkage International.
7 March 2000. 2nd Global Knowledge Conference (GKII). Sponsored by the Government of Malaysia and the Global Knowledge Partnership, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Debra Amidon is speaking.
20-21 March 2000. Managing and Measuring Your Intellectual Capital - Account for Your Knowledge Advantage. Walt Disney World Resort, Lake Buena Vista. IIR.
27-28 March 2000. Tacit Knowledge Roundtable - Developing, Capturing, and Leveraging Your Employee's Expertise to Drive Profit. Atlanta. IIR.
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